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Four hundred years ago the religious world was involved in one of the greatest religious conflicts that this world has ever witnessed. The Five Point Calvinists argue that rejecting any one of the five points makes all of John Calvin's doctrines collapse. Short question, potentially very long answer. Czar Alexander II's abrupt Emancipation of the Serfs in March 1861: a) emancipation from above to avoid social revolution from below, as in Germany -- but with very mixed results: i) According to the principles of a liberal market economy, landlords had to be compensated for their capital losses, in terms of servile manpower and property holdings. ii) The state, having assessed the market value of all Russian estates, issued Redemption Bonds to landowners, to cover 80% of the estimated loss of that capital in emancipation iii) the peasants were expected to pay the remaining 20% in order to gain full personal freedom and title to their lands. b) Why landlords generally gained more than did the former serf peasant tenants: i) Most peasants found that gaining such liberty and land was easier to achieve by surrendering some portion of their tenancy lands, in the form of plough strips scattered within and among the great Open Fields (as seen in western pre-modern agriculture). ii) Furthermore, since, as in western Europe, the estate lord's domain lands had become intermixed with peasant tenancy strips in the Open Fields, iii) the combination of Emancipation itself and of peasant land transfer allowed many entrepreneurial landlords to engage in enclosures -- strictly segregating their lands from the peasantry -- and thus adopt the techniques of agricultural modernization, as already examined for western Europe. c) the special case of Russian Poland: i) We also dealt with the Poland, the former kingdom of Poland, fully absorbed into Russia, after the Napoleonic Wars, in 1815, as a special case. ii) Serfs liberated by Napoleon were not re-enserfed with the defeat of Napoleon, in 1815; iii) with the 1861 Emancipation decree, most Polish peasants were already free, as were those in the Baltic provinces and Finland (acquired afer 1815) iv) 1863: unrest provoked by the Polish nobility, who felt short-changed, led the Russian government to grant even more favourable terms to the Polish peasantry iii) in 1865, Polish peasant were given full and free title to their lands and 10,000 new peasant holdings were created from czarist state-owned lands. d) The consequences of Russian peasant emancipation in terms of land transfers from peasants to large estates: i) Across the Russian Empire, we find that 'only' 4 percent of peasant lands were transferred to landowners in the Russian Empire ii) but if we exclude Poland and the Baltic, the percentage rises to 13%; iii) in the richest agricultural lands, which were all market- and export-oriented, the percentages of peasant losses vary from 23% in Ukraine to 41% in the Volga River valley (from Kuibyshev � now again Samara -- to Saratov). v) At the same time, however, we find, with the development of a much more active and monetized land market, that many of the lesser nobility sold lands � perhaps 25% of their total from 1880 to 1914 � to both private urban investors (merchants, etc) and to peasants: a two-way flow of land 3.
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